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The Renaissance sculpture went a long and difficult way from the timid attempts of Benedetto Antelami to bring individuality, character and non-standard into his work, to the brilliant and flawless works of the Vatican creator Michelangelo Buonarotti.
If in the Middle Ages sculpture was inextricably linked with architecture and was not even considered as a separate art, then with the beginning of the Renaissance, the slow but sure process of separating the sculpture begins, releasing it from dependence on architectural ideas. Sculptures gradually move away from the walls of temples, from reliefs and porticoes, becoming an independent, self-sufficient art.
The Renaissance is divided into three periods, the first of which dates back to the 13th century, and the last ends the 16th century.
Creativity Benedetto belongs to the Roman era. However, in his works (reliefs of the Parma Cathedral) one already guesses the desire to break out of the narrow framework of the canonical Middle Ages. His sculptures are still disproportionate, simple, but in the faces you can see an attempt to convey the intellect, creativity and beauty of man.
The tradition was picked up by the sculptors Pisano and di Cambio. Their sculptures are not just searches for a new aesthetics, searches are associated with the best examples of ancient antiquity, the desire to return to which created a revolution in the view of beauty.
The sculptures of Verrocchio and Donatello finally broke away from the walls and are independent works of art.
Biblical David performed by the teacher of the great Leonardo (Andrea Verrocchio) - an awkward, angular teenager, amazed by his own victory over the giant, proudly tramples the head of the defeated enemy with his foot. The hero’s face has a subtle smile, and children's curls and deliberately heroic pose cause emotion. The master portrayed a young man with a difficult teenage character. Self-confident, rebellious warehouse. The work turned out to be realistic both in appearance and in internal content. There is not even a shadow of medieval pathos, pathos. Here, the author admires an ordinary boy who turned out to be a hero.
It was Donatello who first created the nude sculpture of the Renaissance. Before him, no master dared to come so close to the ancient samples, introducing Christian virtue into them. David Donatello is also awkward and somewhat angular. The proportions of the body are treated quite softly, the hero is deprived of pronounced musculature. The pose of the hero chosen by the author is free, relaxed. This is the pose of the Greek god rather than the biblical character. It is known that for its time the sculpture was so bold that the Medici who ordered it chose to install it in the courtyard of their house, away from prying eyes.
The rapid development of art, and sculpture in particular, took place at the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries, when large construction unfolded in Rome, Florence, Venice and other large cities of Italy. This period, which bears the proud name of the High Renaissance, is associated primarily with the name of Michelangelo.
The works of the ingenious master delighted contemporaries no less than the contemporary viewer. After the public saw the sculpture of the Dying Slave, rumors spread in society that the sitter was tortured so that the suffering could be portrayed more accurately.
Michelangelo became famous for his sculptures adorning the Vatican, Rome, Florence. His work Pieta is the pinnacle of world sculpture, a manifestation of ingenious abilities. Heroes of genius suffer, reflect, rejoice. They have so much content, energy and depth that admiring the magnificent works of a genius will not stop, probably never. More details on the master’s works can be found here.